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These are notes and web links about the impact of Covid-19 on travel and tourism.
Covid-19 is a global pandemic, but its impacts and the responses to it have varied significantly around the world. Just as countries imposed lockdown at different times, they are reducing restrictions on different timetables and in different ways. Of course, this reflects the diversity of our world, itself a significant driver of demand for tourism.
The diversity of impacts and responses will make a recovery for travel and tourism significantly more difficult for travel and tourism than for many other sectors. National governments and local authorities are acting to discourage and prevent domestic tourism and people visiting second homes. Destinations have closed to visitors and tourists, the lockdowns have significantly reduced even local travel. more
Scientists are warning that we have created "a perfect storm" for diseases from wildlife to spill over into humans and spread quickly around the world. "In the last 20 years, we've had six significant threats - SARS, MERS, Ebola, avian influenza and swine flu," Prof Matthew Baylis from the University of Liverpool told BBC News. "We dodged five bullets but the sixth got us."And this is not the last pandemic we are going to face, so we need to be looking more closely at wildlife disease." Many scientists agree that our behaviour - particularly deforestation and our encroachment on diverse wildlife habitats - is helping diseases to spread from animals into humans more frequently. According to Prof Kate Jones from University College London, evidence "broadly suggests that human-transformed ecosystems with lower biodiversity, such as agricultural or plantation landscapes, are often associated with increased human risk of many infections".
Between 2011 and 2018, WHO tracked 1483 epidemic events in 172 countries. Epidemic-prone diseases such as influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Zika, plague, Yellow Fever and others, are harbingers of a new era of high-impact, potentially fast-spreading outbreaks that are more frequently detected and increasingly difficult to manage. Fig. 1 demonstrates the global emergence of selected pathogens over the past 50 years, including both those that naturally emerge/re-emerge and those that are deliberately released. The report is available to download.
"Today, three of the leading threats to global public health are attitudinal: hubris, isolationism, and distrust...... More than ever, a public health event in any part of the world can create a public health threat everywhere. Airplane travel facilitates the rapid spread of pathogens, and even faster communication technology enables the spread of fear and misinformation. Without public health capacity building and disaster preparedness around the globe, each novel disease outbreak means “reinventing” public health policy. Often this requires balancing protecting public health with respecting civil liberties."
loveholidays has produced some useful guidance for people looking to holiday during the Covid-19 pandemic.
For detailed data on the USA Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest Map and Case Count New York Times
As awareness grows of the mental health issues arising from Covid-19 the NHS has produced some helpful advice
What countries can - and can't - learn from each other
Tim Harford - the FT's Undercover Economist reflects on the diversity of national responses to Covid-19 and concludes
"Ultimately, one must learn from experience. The more experiences cities, states or nations are having, the faster we can learn from each other." Language and ideology are obvious barriers to learning.
"There is another reason why countries are often not set up to learn from others: each place has its own institutions, culture and history. In most policy areas, lessons do not easily translate. There is a limit to how much the UK really can learn from Japanese banking regulators, or what Ethiopia can conclude from a study of German pensions. The starting points are so far apart that the lessons are obscure.
Coronavirus is different. It doesn’t care about cultural norms and barely about the level of economic development. There are ample lessons we can learn from each other about how to deal with it. But they must be learnt quickly — and we are not in the habit of studying."
Just how risky is flying? And is there any way to guarantee safety? The Independent
05 August: The UK government's decision to abandon quarantine in favour of voluntary “stay at home” guidance. Sir Patrick Vallance, the Government's chief scientific officer, has pointed to evidence that hundreds of different strains of Covid-19 were brought into the UK after the Government abandoned special measures for international arrivals on March 13. Up to 10,000 infected people entered the UK, accelerating the spread of disease. DT
26 July: uncertainty about further lockdowns and quarantine impacting travel in Europe more
25 July: the UK government placed Spain back on the quarantine on return list and advised against all but essential travel to Spain. TUI responded by cancelling all booked holidays to Spain saying that it “won’t take customers on holiday” if they were required to quarantine on their return. The travel editor of the consumer group Which?, was prompted to ask: “Why on earth was this decision not taken 48 hours ago, when it was clear there was a problem with Spain, and before tens of thousands of UK holidaymakers flew out on Friday as the summer holidays started?” DT
23 July: Camping in the Forest – owned by the Camping and Caravanning Club – has closed the busy site until April 2021. The Scottish Government and landowners Forestry and Land Scotland have been trying to get them to change their mind. Emergency services were called out to Loch Morlich repeatedly over the weekend with a spate of camp fires being lit by so-called dirty campers despite warnings not to do so and lighting fires in wooded areas being against the Scottish Outdoor Access Code.
"The lochside is a very special place and we must not allow it to be trashed by the inconsiderate few who think it's okay to scatter their litter and worse still human waste over the entire area. "We have always welcomed people who head off into the hills with a tent and a stove and who leave no trace that they have been there but what we see on the shores of the loch is not ‘wild camping’ as we know it."It is irresponsible and downright dangerous given the possibility of camp fires getting out of control. "Part of the problem has to be the lack of facilities which leads me to that bunch of numpties Camping in the Forest why haven’t they opened their campsite? Don’t they like to make money. Fellow local councillor Muriel Cockburn said that the scenes at Loch Morlich over the weekend were not wild camping.
She said: "True wild campers completely respect and honour our environment. The camping scenes we have witnessed have shown a disregard an unacceptable behaviour for our Great Outdoors." Fellow local councillor Muriel Cockburn said that the scenes at Loch Morlich over the weekend were not wild camping. She said: "True wild campers completely respect and honour our environment. The camping scenes we have witnessed have shown a disregard an unacceptable behaviour for our Great Outdoors." more
23 July: Mufi Hannemann, currently heads the industry group Hawaii Lodging and Tourism Association, candidate For Honolulu Mayor on restarting Oahu’s tourism industry: envisions a gradual build up, but also a reorientation of the tourism economy. “This is going to be a rebranding of Hawaii tourism,” Hanneman said. “It's going to be responsible tourism, the kind of tourism that people want. We're not going to be trampling on resources. When the visitors come, they're going to understand that they have to respect the environment and the culture. I believe that as mayor, I can do things that I've done in the past like impact fees.” Impact fees refer to charges paid by patrons of a particular attraction as a way to fund maintenance and conservation efforts. The City and County of Honolulu currently uses such a system at Haunauma Bay. He also said that he would also prioritize enforcement of the city ordinance restricting vacation rentals to resort areas only.
22 July: "irresponsible tourists" Gail Ross the SNP MSP for Caithness, Sutherland and Ross, had warned of growing resentment and frustration over the behaviour of some visitors. She urged Scotland's tourism secretary Fergus Ewing to act following what she called "disgusting" reports of fires, litter and even human waste at local beauty spots. She claimed there had been a "complete disregard" for communities and the environment from tourism websites as well as from visitors themselves, and declared: “There is real concern that the North Coast 500 route in particular is being heavily promoted and advertised to campervan and caravan users without any regard to the lack of infrastructure available on the route at present or the impact those who camp irresponsibly are having on the environment and the communities." Tom Campbell, executive chairman of North Coast 500 Ltd, "Our advice is that visitors should only stay overnight in designated sites and they should book in advance in order that their holiday is planned ahead. Whether people are travelling by car, bicycle, motorcycle, campervan, motorhome or foot, it is their responsibility to dispose of their waste responsibly. "We encourage people not to leave waste for others to find or remove. It is their waste, their rubbish, and we encourage everyone to take account of that when they visit this wonderful place.” more
Travel and tourism bodies in Kerala "have leaned towards domestic and local tourism -- identifying unexplored places in the state, encouraging and generating interest in the same among Malayalis and offering the same experiences at lower rates -- thereby sustaining the distressed sector. Bordeaux has used "tips for responsible tourism" to relaunch the destination: slow tourism, "accommodation that is respectful of the inhabitants of Bordeaux", responsible eateries, local and ethical shops, limiting waste and Enjoy an eco-responsible lifestyle."
The majority of citizens in Germany fear that summer holidays will cause the number of corona infections to rise again. 69 per cent believe that this will lead to a significant increase in the number of infections in Germany, according to the current ZDF "Politbarometer", which was published on 10th July The Isle of Wight is launching a Visitor Charter inviting visitors to help the community to contain the virus "by doing everything you can to have a safe and enjoyable visit."
21 July: The Mayor of Capri ordered that face masks must be worn outdoors in the evening. Under the new rules, protective masks will be mandatory outdoors in the historic centre of the island from 6pm to 4am at weekends. In the southern Campania region, which includes Capri, masks are required in public spaces whenever social distancing of one metre cannot be implemented.
13 July: EL PAÍS travels to two vacation destinations to see how locals feel about the arrival of visitors for the summer season as the risk of Covid-19 persists
11 July: Take-off! Holiday giant Tui is back, but boss Andrew Flintham says travel industry STILL needs help
10 July: WHO says countries may have to return to "total lockdown," after cases double worldwide in 6 weeks
Dr. Michael Ryan, executive director of WHO's Health Emergencies Program has said countries should be "ready to move backwards or forwards" depending on the numbers they are seeing. "Accept the fact that in our current situation it is very unlikely that we can eradicate or eliminate this virus," he said, noting that this gives the virus an opportunity to reemerge. Ryan compared coronavirus outbreaks to forest fires. Small fires, he said, are easy to put out but difficult to recognize. He advised every country and community to implement a system where it can detect the "small embers," allowing it to only lockdown small areas in order to contain the virus.
9th July: The Sun newspaper's headline on the YouGov survey results on 9th July. "BRITS may not be welcome in Europe after all as a new survey finds them at the bottom of the list for tourists countries are happy to welcome. People in France, Spain, Italy and Germany have all expressed concerns about UK tourists due to the alarming coronavirus rate in the country."As Magaluf reopened drunk British holidaymakers were not wearing masks and jumping on cars'
One angry local raged on social media: “Total chaos in Punta Bellena. Hundreds of sons of b***ches from Great Britain. No face masks on, jumping on top of cars, drunk, drinking alcohol in the street. A disaster. Where’s the police? A f**king disgrace.” The anti ‘trash tourism’ decree approved in January was intended to restrict the promotion and sale of alcohol in specific areas of the Balearic Islands including Magaluf and San Antonio on neighbouring Ibiza. The legislation requiring bars to close at 02:00 appears to have fuelled the ugly behaviour. more
Only a few days earlier Iago Negueruela, the Balearic minister for the economy, labour and tourism. has said that "There won't be that kind of mass tourism because those places are not going to open; it's a clear message." We have "already started a process and it is irreversible. The pubs won't open this year. We are no longer going to receive or tolerate that kind of tourist, who can be a risk for themselves and others." The law against "tourism of excesses" that was introduced at the start of the year, banning pub crawls and happy hours. He was optimistically asserting that the "... hotel sector has already staked out its preference for quality and not just numbers, but the perception does not always accompany the reality. Even in Magaluf, a transformation has been taking place, with a focus on five-star hotels, its beaches and gastronomy." "Some elements of this crisis might be temporary, like face masks," says Andreu Serra, tourism chief for the Mallorca Council island administration. "But this is also an opportunity to improve our care of tourists, by using technology to control numbers so we know when beaches will be full, and generally boosting hygiene in all hospitality areas." The local council has responded by closing the strip in Magaluf for two months. more
7 July: WHO Director-General
"The outbreak is accelerating and we have clearly not reached the peak of the pandemic. While the number of deaths appears to have levelled off globally, in reality, some countries have made significant progress in reducing the number of deaths, while in other countries deaths are still on the rise. Where there has been progress in reducing deaths, countries have implemented targeted actions toward the most vulnerable groups, for example, those people living in long-term care facilities. WHO Travel Advice
26 June: Slow Food Slow Travel Responsible Tourism in Italy
14 June: The Times Staycations: fears of ‘pitchfork welcome’ for Cornwall tourists. There are fears, however, that this could be the summer when long-simmering tension between the locals and the 4x4 driving, Boden-clad brigade boils over. While the coronavirus has brought people closer together in many parts of the UK, it has bolstered anti-tourist rhetoric in Cornwall, leaving those in
4 June: Economist The pandemic is still gathering pace in most of the world
Richer countries can do much to help. Some stricken places will need donations of simple supplies like testing kits and protective gear. Others will need debt relief, to free money to fight the disease. Humanitarian aid for war-torn countries and the refugees they create is even more urgent than usual.
WTTC has, with multiple partners, developed 'Safe Travels': Global Protocols & Stamp for the New Normal. #SAFETRAVELS. The protocols will be published in phases for at least eleven industries, including; Hospitality, Attractions, Outdoor Retail, Aviation, Airports, Short Term Rentals, Cruise, Tour Operators, Convention Centres and MICE, Car Rental and Insurance.
The UNWTO has published a One Planet Vision for the Responsible Recovery of the Tourism Sector structured around six lines of action to guide responsible tourism recovery for people, planet and prosperity, namely public health, social inclusion, biodiversity conservation, climate action, circular economy and governance and finance. UNWTO's Global Guidelines to Restart Tourism were published at the end of May.
The impact of Covid-19 on holidaymakers is that they don't get a foreign holiday and in many countries any holiday. Of course, only a minority ever have a holiday year after year, a holiday is in a fundamental sense a luxury good. In the destinations large numbers of people are put out of work, in larger companies, able to access government funds, they may be furloughed, but the vast majority of tourism is delivered by SMEs, micro-enterprises and sole traders. As Justin Francis has argued there is far less welfare support for those who lose their livelihoods in developing countries, there are altruistic and self-interested reasons to act. "The developed north relies on many less developed countries to deliver travel "product". Recovery here requires it there – we need to rebuild together."
Edinburgh Councillor McVey said the group had reaffirmed the aims of Edinburgh’s new Tourism Strategy - a 10 year plan which focuses on managing tourism and balancing the needs of local residents, businesses and visitors.
Milan Milan announces ambitious scheme to reduce car use after lockdown
Amsterda Amsterdam plans to reduce noise starting this year
Sicily Sicily will PAY half the price of tourists' flights, a third of their hotel bill and give away free tickets for museums in bid to lure back holidaymakers after lockdown
St Lucia is implementing a responsible reopening plan
Aran islanders have chose ‘health over wealth’ as businesses remain shut, an Inis Oírr poll showed 92 per cent don’t want to risk a coronavirus outbreak with tourism return
New Zealand quickly locked down when Covid-19 arrived and managed to reduce its coronavirus cases to zero in seven weeks. It is now planning a travel bubble, or corridor, including Australia and some Pacific Islands to enable travel and tourism to begin again.
UK VisitBritain has launched a ‘We’re Good To Go’ industry standard and supporting mark means businesses across the sector can demonstrate that they are adhering to the respective Government and public health guidance, have carried out a COVID-19 risk assessment and check they have the required processes in place. Coupled with a a ‘Know Before You Go’ public information campaign to support tourism in England as businesses start to re-open, reassuring visitors as restrictions are lifted by checking about what it is safe to do and when, and sign-posting to information about destinations and available services before travelling. more
British ambassador: A period of caution and then tourists will return - Majorca Daily Bulletin
23 April - Ramaphosa’s address to the nation on lockdown easing When the country moves to level 4 on 1 May: Our borders will remain closed to international travel, except for the repatriation of South African nationals and foreign citizens. No travel will be allowed between provinces, except for the transportation of goods and exceptional circumstances such as funerals. Public transport will continue to operate, with limitations on the number of passengers and stringent hygiene requirements, including that all passengers must wear a face mask. The coronavirus is spread by contact between people. If people do not travel, the virus does not travel. Other budget items that may be sacrificed are funds for the tourism sector, because “it doesn’t make sense to keep budget items in a situation where tourism is not taking place”, Mboweni said.
Covid-19 Risk Adjusted Strategy - Level 5
"February was the last of the tourism industry as we know it, and the last time we would have seen anything like 'normal' for a long time," says Bac. She foresees that, even once lockdown restrictions are lifted, it would be a while before people would start taking business trips, let alone leisure trips again. Business travellers usually make up the bulk of central city hotel occupancy."There will be a huge slump around the world and each country will try to rebuild their own tourism industry. We won't see many South Africans travelling out of the country nor foreigners coming here - apart from adventure travellers," she says."Until our borders open and airlines fly again and there is a vaccine, people will rather do things locally in areas which are not crowded but allow them to get out of their homes. Our national parks will be attractive in this way and there might also be an opportunity for smaller towns to market themselves to city dwellers who were cooped up during lockdown."
WalletHub has researched US states Hawaii has the highest share of employment in travel and tourism-related industries, it is the state most dependent on tourism.
Please don’t go to Hawaii on a “corona vacation” right now - Vox
How to Control Hawaii’s Coronavirus Epidemic and Bring Back the Economy: The Next Steps - U Hero Hawaii
Is Hawaii Tourism Nearing a Tipping Point? Paradise in big trouble? - Travel Wire News
Waikiki Beach Closed - All Hawaiian Beaches closed - E Turbo News
Ige dictates Crisis Response and 4 Mayors are not happy - Hawaii News
Hawaii Gov Emergency Proclamation for COVID-19 - FMCSA
National Guards and jail instead of flower leis for Hawaiian visitors - E Turbo News
Florida GOP governor facing rebellion as tourism companies stay shut to avoid lawsuits: report - Raw Story
British holidaymakers face a summer-long ban from Balearic Islands over UK’s ‘delayed’ lockdown but Germans, Swedes, and Danes are welcome! - Euro Weekly News
Ibiza and Majorca could open up for holidays in August - but with Britons told to stay away because the UK 'took too long' to go into lockdown - Daily Mail
10 July: BA has been widely criticised over plans to cut up to 12,000 jobs and ram through sweeping changes to pay and working conditions for those that remain. A row over BA’s prized landing slots at Heathrow, where it is the biggest airline, erupted last month when aviation minister Kelly Tolhurst raised the spectre of reviewing the airline’s allocation. Although the Government does not have the right to allocate take-off and landing slots, from 2021 parliament will have the power to set local criteria in return for slot allocation. more
When passenger planes start flying again, the world of air travel will be very different - BBC News
Polluting European airlines seek €12.8 bn (and counting) in bailouts - Green Peace
Airline Bailout Tracker - Carbon Market Watch
IATA Economics - IATA
Covid-19: Flying with KLM - 'Social distancing' and other measures on board - KLM
Emirates becomes first airline to conduct on-site rapid COVID-19 tests for passengers - Emirates
EasyJet plans for ‘slow return’ to flying - EasyJet
EasyJet weighs up empty middle seats once coronavirus rules ease - EasyJet
American Airlines and United Airlines are creating distance where available by not seating customers in middle seats and allowing seat changes once everyone is on the plane if someone feels like they are uncomfortable.
IATA research estimates a fall of over 50 per cent in passenger revenues - International Airport Review
Coronavirus: Plane-maker Airbus furloughs 3,200 staff - BBC News
Heathrow reducing to two terminals from Thursday 16th - Heathrow.com
From Monday 6th single runway operations - Heathrow.com
You’re Grounded: The COVID-19 Effect on Global Flight Capacity - Visual Capitalist
The US Treasury Department wants airlines to repay close to a third of the value of payroll assistance received under the Coronavirus Aid, Recovery, and Economic Security (CARES) Act.
Fourteen European governments are in favour of allowing airlines to issue vouchers instead of refunds for cancelled flights, as the EU’s passenger rights charter creaks under the pressure created by the coronavirus outbreak.
The Dutch government will introduce a €7 levy per air passenger in 2021 if the EU does not manage to set up a pan-European tax, as momentum builds behind calls to crack down on aviation’s environmental impact.
A380s Lufthansa has dropped six of its 14 A380s, British Airways has sent six of its 12 of the Airbus aircraft to a facility in France for mothballing.
Air fares could double when lockdown is lifted, making foreign holidays temporarily unaffordable for many British families. The Telegraph understands ticket prices are set to surge because once non-essential foreign travel is once again allowed, aircraft carriers are likely to be barred from fully filling planes. This is in order to ensure passengers keep a safe distance from each other while onboard. Last night an industry source said it is expected that aircraft carriers will be given social distancing guidance, which they will be asked to enforce for passengers.
‘I was wrong to invest in airlines,’ says Warren Buffett - Travel Weekly
Warren Buffett sells all shares in major airlines amid $50bn loss - The Telegraph
Ryanair warns refunds to take up to six months as it axes jobs - BBC News
Coronavirus: UK airlines warn quarantine will 'kill air travel' - BBC News
Deep cleaning of aircraft
Emirates has introduced a 10 minute test for coronavirus allowing passengers travelling to countries that require coronavirus test certificates for entry to gain confirmation before flying.
Wizz Air new standards post covid - Travel Weekly
Royal Caribbean reveals numbers seeking refunds
COVID-19 pandemic on Diamond Princess - Wiki
COVID-19 pandemic on cruise ships - Wiki
Coronavirus on the high seas: Why the U.S. can't touch cruise lines - Politico
Cruise lines will have to ‘make significant changes to operations’ - Travel Weekly
Current COVID-19 Cruise Line and Cruise Ship Sailing Cancellations - Cruise Market Watch
Why Lawmakers Are So Uneasy About Giving the Cruise Industry a Bailout - Skift
Carnival Corporation Q1 results - a perfect storm?
Carnival Sells 8 Percent Stake to Saudis After Dire Financial Warning - Skift
More than 5,500 UK jobs could be at risk as the result of an extended shutdown of the cruise industry due to the coronavirus crisis - Travel Weekly
‘No one comes': the cruise ship crews cast adrift by coronavirus - The Guardian
Royal Caribbean charts mass crew repatriation - Travel Weekly
According to Risto E.J. Penttilä, the CEO of Nordic West Office, the holiday season and the dismantling of restrictions are not compatible. “That would be the moment to start reconstructing the economy, not the time to go on holiday. If the growth gets underway, in principle we should be working,”
Three things visitor attractions should focus on during the Covid-19 pandemic - Cambridge Network
Introducing frontline stays for COVID-19 responders - Airbnb
Sandals Resorts Addresses Changing Needs Amidst COVID-19 - Travel Breaking News
Sandals Resorts Cleanliness and Safety are Priority #1 - E Turbo News
Indian tourism industry seeks immediate 'survival measures': FAITH - Economic Times
Homestay operators approach govt to form welfare fund board - New Indian Express
Bite-sized videos as baits for tourists - The Hindu
Rural and experiential travel hold the key - Facebook (Harold Goodwin)
The Unwanted Visitor - Caribbean Tourism Organisation (Podcast)
2019–20 coronavirus pandemic by country and territory - Wikipedia
Google's COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports - Google
Creating meaningful connections between tourists and hosts is one of the characteristics of Responsible Tourism, tourism is a major part of the experience economy. Visit Scotland has had a big success with its Absence Makes the Heart Grow Fonder campaign, described by the Scottish Tourism Alliance as " a message of support and hope to our friends around the world and assure them that, whilst they can’t visit just now, we will still be here with a warm welcome for them when the time is right." VisitScotland described it as " virtual hug to fans of Scotland, near and far, with a heart-warming film asking them to dream about visiting now, but to travel later." In just five days the film reached 1.6 million people. Will people turn to virtual tours - there are links to 12 tours of famous museums here. French Waterways are stimulating wanderlust.
Arundhati Roy: ‘The pandemic is a portal’ ‘We can’t go back to normal’: how will coronavirus change the world?
As governments fumbled their coronavirus response, these four got it right. Here's how.
W.H.O., Now Trump’s Scapegoat, Warned About Coronavirus Early and Often
As governments fumbled their coronavirus response, these four got it right. Here's how.
Resources related to Short Term Response to & Recovery from the COVID-19 Pandemic, with a focus on Travel, Tourism & Hospitality
Resources for Longer Term Transformation and Sustainability from the COVID-19 Pandemic, with a focus on Travel, Tourism & Hospitality
The URL www.rtp.education takes you directly to the RT Hub which provides easy links to Responsible Tourism on the WTM websites and RT Partnership.
RT News carries the top ten stories on RT – the are many more links to RT stories here.
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Responsible Tourism Partnership one of "5 Meaningful Voices In The Push For Responsible Tourism"
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